Climate change and public health pdf


 

Climate Change, Extreme Heat, and Health A Tool Kit Table of Contents 2 Goals and Guiding Principles 6 Environmental Public Health Before and After Tracking: Figure 1. In 2015, there was a total of 574 natural disasters. In so labelling it, the Lancet and the University College London Institute for Global Health Commission cited the far reach of climate change and its diverse threats to human health [6]. Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) of human to the public health impacts of a changing climate. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are un-precedented. e ect of climate change on health is data about natural disasters. Climate change adaptation in the health sector - a literature review . Climate change is described by human health. The ten essential public health services are: 1. These changes Health is the human face of climate change. Team Lead Climate Change & Health Equity Program California Department of Public Health . Climate change is amongst many other determinants, such as enviro nmental, social and political factors that act on transmissibility of diseases. This may directly, or via increased about climate change and believed that more should be done by governments to address the impact of hazards and public is educated about the SMART the effects of climate effects on the health sector in their respective counties. Budi Haryanto is Chairman of the Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia. ” Chuck Hagel, 24th U. When the health impacts of climate change were first broached in the health literature, they were referred to as a possible eventuality (Longstreth 1991). We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population three functions. sector and in relation to climate change. 1-3 Climate change and climate variability are and will be a threat to human health, as has been highlighted by the recently published fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For human health. EPA, 2015, 2017a). The 2017 CIRA report (U. Health and Ecohealth; and specifically target the health challenges of human-induced global climate change, resource deple- tion, ecotoxicity and loss of biodiversity. the planning committee for the National Academy of Medicine’s Climate Change and Human Health Initiative and has testified before Congress for the full House Committee on Oversight and Reform on how climate change is harming health. gov OR • Use WebEx chat function . While most of the work regarding weeds, pollen pro-duction and climate have focused on common rising CO 2 and/ or temperature, these factors would also be expected to in-fluence seasonal pollen production of other allergenic plants, including tree and grass species. For public health, climate change has gone from a possible concern to what appears to be an actual threat in just over two decades. 9 Climate Impacts in New Orleans New Orleans like most of the world is already seeing signs of climate change and these impacts will only continue to get more severe in the future. Keynote Address: impacting public health systems. 7, 2017 11:45 a. human health vulnerability and public health adaptation to climate change. Yohe, Eds. Human vulnerability to these health effects depends on three factors: exposure sectors of society, including public health Evaluate current trends in human-associated and natural climate change Project major climate trends in United States for next 25 - 100 years Melillo, Jerry M. id Acknowledgements This report is a revised version of a paper originally presented to the Nautilus Institute RMIT workshop on Mapping Causal Complexity in Climate Change Impacts Is Climate Change Making Us Sick? The Future of Public Health in a Climate Altered World Present a joint symposium on Thursday, Dec. Such a strategy might include six key elements: evidence-based actions; strengthening the key features of the public health system that are aimed at protection from climate change; guiding Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. In China, where more than 1 million people now die burden of climate change. This publication describes the process of global climate change, its current and future impacts on human health, and how our societies can lessen those adverse impacts, via adaptation strategies and by reducing greenhouse climate change on human health so that we can both mitigate and adapt to the environmental effects of climate change in the healthiest and most efficient ways. implementing climate and health programs at the local level. 2 Were we to ask that question today, as we should, the answer would be: We do, but we are failing to act quickly enough or at sufficient scale. Public Health Heats Up: The Impact of Climate Disruption Ted Cieslak MD Associate Professor UNMC College of Public Health Omaha NE tal Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reinforces the need for societies to take adaptive actions to protect human health from the adverse consequences of climate change [3]. Such a strategy might include six key elements: evidence-based actions; strengthening the key features of the public health system that are aimed at protection from climate change; guiding Mechanisms by which climate change affects health Climate change has been labelled as ‘the biggest global health threat of the 21st century’. Keynote Address: effective component of comprehensive climate and public health action Addressing climate change through mitigation and adaption solutions has the potential to be one of the greatest global health opportunities of the 21. This Mechanisms by which climate change affects health Climate change has been labelled as ‘the biggest global health threat of the 21st century’. S. Prepared by: Dr. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization, all consider climate change among the most significant contemporary threats to public health. 16 The Australian Department for Climate Change has recognised that the increasing risk to the built and The effects of future climate change on public health are an active and growing area of research, including the direct impacts of more severe heat waves ( 1, 2) and decreased food security ( 3, 4) to less direct effects on the prevalence of infectious disease ( 5) and air pollution ( 6 ). Although the group recog ­ nizes the global nature of climate change’s impacts on human health, the primary focus of this paper is on the situation in the United States. ” WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, 2008 “…climate change is a ‘threat multiplier’… [that] will intensify the challenges of global instability, hunger, poverty and conflict. Climate change is now recognized by many as a significant Abstract The epidemiological implications with respect to climate change and public health (e. Conversely with less than one third of the respondents effective component of comprehensive climate and public health action Addressing climate change through mitigation and adaption solutions has the potential to be one of the greatest global health opportunities of the 21. Climate change is a public health issue as well as an environmental one. Heat-related deaths, Hos pital discharge data meets national 2. 2 They address and plan for the risks of climate change to public health. g. Everyone is affected climate change and health. CAT-PHWG Quarterly Meeting | June 10, 2019 Wildfires, Climate Change, and Public The Public Health Impacts of Climate Change Laura Wenzel Medical Advocates for Healthy Air Carolinas Climate Resiliency Conference September 13, 2016 laura@cleanaircarolina. Goal 6: Communicate and educate public health professionals, healthcare providers, state agency personnel, policy-makers, vulnerable populations and the general public on climate change’s effects on human health. , shifts in disease vectors) are beginning to be acknowledged. 2008). U. m. BRACE framework is a five-step process to facilitate climate readiness in public health. • This assessment significantly advances what we know about the impacts of climate change on public health, and the confidence with which we know it. Everyone is afected by climate change at some point in their lives. caused by earthquakes, oods, droughts, landslides and heat waves. Healthcare Pledge - Making the pitch to leadership: Health Care Climate Challenge and We Are Still In pledge 4. • Inadequate funding for climate change and health activities • Lack of dedicated human resources for climate change and health • Divergent ideologies leading to inconsistent messaging around climate change • Divergent understanding of the role of public health institutions sectors of society, including public health Evaluate current trends in human-associated and natural climate change Project major climate trends in United States for next 25 - 100 years Melillo, Jerry M. 11/20/2018 Page 5 Climate change is a ‘threat multiplier’ No one in Oregon is immune to the health effects of climate change, but some communities are more at risk than others. , 2009). Climate change threatens the health and well-being of Oregon Health Authority: Climate Change and Public Health in Oregon v. She engages in research on how climate change is impacting the healthcare system and Public Health -~ e\ 7 Ci. Please RSVP to healthlaw@uh. Sarah O’Brien, Specialist Registrar Public Health Medicine, Department of Health, September 2018. A climate change surveillance system is essential to quantify past and current impacts of climate change on human health, predict future impacts, develop and guide public health adaptation strategies, and evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies (English, et al. Why is Climate Change Important to Public Health? The American Public Health Associa-tion and World Health Organization call climate change 'one of the most serious public health threats' facing us today. 3 One way to stimulate action is for the World Health Organization to declare climate change a public health emergency of international concern. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population Public Health Consequences and Cost of Climate Change Impacts on Indoor Environments Prepared for: The Indoor Environments Division Office of Radiation and Indoor Air U. Climate Change & Public Health in NYS –Asante Shipp Hilts and Neil Muscatiello, NYS Dept. , Terese (T. Public Health -~ e\ 7 Ci. 1-3 these health impacts that arise from climate change. Abstract The epidemiological implications with respect to climate change and public health (e. Sincerely, Patty Hayes Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. He has taught and con-ducted research on climate change and its relationship to health for nearly two decades. Bringing Climate Change into Public Health The department’s leadership team recognized climate change as an emerging issue in the public health field and wanted to prioritize its inclusion in strategic planning efforts. climate change and health. 2. Mitchell MD, MPH, FACPM Associate Professor, Climate Change, Energy and Environmental Health Equity George Mason University Founder and Senior Policy Advisor, Connecticut Coalition for Environmental Justice Former Director of Health, City of Hartford Action Plan to cut the carbon pollution that causes climate change and in turn affects public health. Climate Change and Public Health climate change and health. Climate change is altering seasonal patterns, making our summers hotter, and fueling increased flooding from coastal storms, like Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Khan, MD, MPH Dean and Professor, UNMC College of Public Health Retired Assistant Surgeon General, USPHS Keywords: Climate change, Infectious diseases, Global health, El Niño/La Niña, Emerging infectious diseases Background Links between climate change and communicable diseases are complex. Work with schools of nursing, medicine, public health and other ancillary programs to exchange information and resources so that practitioners can be better Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. Currently, climate researchers are projecting Climate Change and Health Equity: The Climate Gap "Social injustice is killing people on a grand scale. ðlThe 61st and 62nd World Health Assemblies approved a resolution and a workplan on climate change and health. Extreme Cold 4. of Health • Public Health and Community Climate Action Planning for the City of Rochester –Anne Spaulding • Q & A –All speakers Understanding the threats that climate change poses to human health can help us work together to lower risks and be prepared. Everything that we do now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions reduces the severity of climate change and the impacts we face. Heat-related morbidity; 3. Paid parking available at 601 Travis. S address and plan for the risks of climate change to public health. There is strong and growing evidence that climate change is harming the health of the American people. Public health effect might be one of the most significant impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh. Arlington, VA 22209 1. 1 Brief on climate change and health The technical document ^Strengthening Health Resilience to Climate Change, that has been presented in the framework of the first international conference on Health and Climate Change organized by the World Health Organization (Geneva, August 2014), summarizes well 20 years of research (WHO, 2014). ” —Margaret Chan, Former Director-General, World Health Organization. Guide: Integrating Public Health into Climate Change Policy and Planning: State of Practice Update 5. Health and Health Disparities University of Maryland School of Public Health Statewide Implementation and Monitoring Strategy Local Constituencies: • Health Departments • Governments • NGOs Maryland Climate Change Commission Adaptation and Response Working Group Maryland Climate Change Commission Vulnerable Communities levels, global change and public health. Mitchell MD, MPH, FACPM Associate Professor, Climate Change, Energy and Environmental Health Equity George Mason University Founder and Senior Policy Advisor, Connecticut Coalition for Environmental Justice Former Director of Health, City of Hartford climate change and health. Research indicates that the general public views climate change as primarily an environmental issue and not a public health issue. 2 These threats will ðlPlan urges countries to incorporate workers' health in climate mitigation and adaptation strategies and in the measures for environmental protection, such as those dealing with environmental preparedness and response. org april 4, 2013 1335 review article global health Globalization, Climate Change, and Human Health Anthony J. Email: bharyant@cbn. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution. for the National Public Health Performance Standards (CDC 2014). 1. The National Climate Policy and Climate Change Response Strategy makes specific mention of health, while the 2016-2020 National Health Strategy makes explicit reference to the need to improve climate change awareness and the need to develop a Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change Plan. Discussion / Q&A: Submit Questions: • Email CCHEP@cdph. Such understanding would hopefully ensure a sustained commitment to climate change-related efforts and needed strategic actions. of Health • Public Health and Community Climate Action Planning for the City of Rochester –Anne Spaulding • Q & A –All speakers Climate Change & Health Equity ISSUE BRIEF “For public health, climate change is the defining issue for the 21st century. B. , temperature determines plant range), carbon Bloomberg School of Public Health in fielding the survey. Q 2006 The Royal Institute of Public Health. Key findings from this report include: 1. address and plan for the risks of climate change to public health. Climate change ranks eighth on the list of personal health risks that Marylanders are concerned about, but many of the other health threats that residents said were bigger risks – including air pollution, insect-borne diseases, violent storms, and polluted drinking water – can be caused or Dr. 3 The combination of higher temperatures and potential increases in precipitation will create the conditions for greater intensity or spread of many infectious diseases in Bangladesh. Figure 1. 28 A survey of public mental health clinics in early November 2007 found that climate change and health. By first focusing on increasing knowledge about climate change and health across Public Health, we can consider how to implement strategies related to both prevention of (mitigation) and preparedness for (adaptation) climate change impacts on King County residents and communities. , B. Findings suggest that although climate literacy exists among members of the EastBoston community, there was a disconnect as public health advocates in ensuring action on climate change is proposed in the Lancet Countdown. Colette Bonner, Deputy Chief Medical Officer, Department of Health. ca. To protect health, highly Public Health Heats Up: Global and Local Impacts of Climate Disruption Ali S. + the profound significance of climate change for global health. McMichael, M. • Inadequate funding for climate change and health activities • Lack of dedicated human resources for climate change and health • Divergent ideologies leading to inconsistent messaging around climate change • Divergent understanding of the role of public health institutions •Maryland’s Public Health Strategy for Climate Change is an integral part of overall Maryland response to climate change •The CDC BRACE framework provides a useful approach to the public health strategy •Critical to use health data to inform decision-making and response Summary • Background: Climate change affects human health, and health departments are urged to act to reduce the severity of these impacts. • Seek opportunities to educate local government decision-makers on the co-benefits of applying a climate-health lens to local government planning. Yet little is known about the perspective of public health nurses—the largest component of the public health workforce—regarding their roles in addressing health impacts of climate change. net. This image illustrates some of the most significant components of climate change (rising temperatures, more extreme weather, rising sea levels, and increasing carbon dioxide levels), their effect on exposures, Global climate change and health: an old story writ large Climate change poses a major, and largely unfamiliar, challenge. In addition to being affected by climate (e. S Climate change is likely to have serious and long-term consequences for public health Researchers have identified a number of broad health issues associated with climate change, such as food security, large-scale migration and civil conflict (Frumkin et al. The Plan includes steps to cut carbon pollution, help prepare the United States for the impacts of climate change, and continue American leadership in international efforts to combat global climate change. This report is one of three released from the 2015 data; other reports highlight attitudes, behaviors and policy preferences on energy, and climate change policies and concerns other than public health. these health impacts that arise from climate change. n Support and promote policies to develop and design communities that benefit both health and the environment. The Utah Environmental Public Health Tracking Network provides a way to fill the gaps between what we know about climate change and its impact on health by collecting and providing this data. Less recognized however, are the potential links between climate, plant biology and public health. CLIMATE CHANGE WILL MAGNIFY EXISTING HEALTH INEQUITIES. Use of cooling centers pg standard for reporting (may not capture all deaths from heat-related illness). Dr. CDC’s Climate Ready States and Cities Initiative awards an average of about $200,000 per year each to 16 state and two local health departments to implement a risk management framework designed to help incorporate climate projections into public health planning. • Climate change impacts a wide range of health outcomes. Adverse health effects of hot weather and heat-waves are largely preventable. Healthy Behavior n Help the public health system go green and initiate programs to green your work environment. In the 2012-2015 Public Health Strategic Plan, a specific climate change and attendant objectivegoal were includeds . Environmental public health indicators (EPHIs) of human tal Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reinforces the need for societies to take adaptive actions to protect human health from the adverse consequences of climate change [3]. An integrated approach to assessment is encouraged because the impact of climate is likely to transcend traditional sector and regional boundaries, with For teaching institutions: make environmental health, climate change and health care’s role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating adaptation part of required learning. • Climate change exacerbates some existing health threats and creates new public health challenges. Climate Action Playbook for Hospitals - cool visual tool! 2. id Acknowledgements This report is a revised version of a paper originally presented to the Nautilus Institute RMIT workshop on Mapping Causal Complexity in Climate Change Impacts Climate Change and the Health of Occupational Groups Understanding the threats that climate change poses to human health can help us work together to lower risks and be prepared. Currently, climate researchers are projecting Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. century Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. org Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. - 1:00 p. Organization: (non-profit): Climate change, health, and health care 3. EPA, 2017a) was developed to inform the Tasmanian Climate Change and Health Roundtable – Final Report June 2020 Page 5 2 The Tasmanian Climate Change and Health Roundtable 2. Andrews Kurth Kenyon LLP JPMorgan Chase Tower 600 Travis Street, Suite 4200 Lunch will be served. 1 Aims and Objectives The aim of the Roundtable was to help identify and prioritise policies, programs and research in climate change and health, specific to the Tasmanian context. Responding to this objeca tive, SPRCPH conducted a Climate change is likely to have serious and long-term consequences for public health Researchers have identified a number of broad health issues associated with climate change, such as food security, large-scale migration and civil conflict (Frumkin et al. D. Climate Change and Public Health 1. climate change on human health so that we can both mitigate and adapt to the environmental effects of climate change in the healthiest and most efficient ways. Our knowledge of the health impacts of global ecological change is surprisingly limited. , temperature determines plant range), carbon Climate change together with ecosystem damage and biodiversity loss are by far the greatest public health threats of the century, not just globally, but to the United Kingdom. , 2014: Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. Monitor health status to identify and solve to improve public health programs and effectively identify and address the health risks of climate change. . The new engl and journal of medicine n engl j med 368;14 nejm. Prevention requires a portfolio of actions at different levels: from health system preparedness, coordinated with meteorological early warning systems, to timely public and medical advice and ciated public health impacts under different climate change and socioeconomic scenarios consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) frame-work (U. 1,2 Climate change is altering weather and climate patterns. CLIMATE CHANGE: PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACTS Climate change is projected to create new, unprecedented health problems and health threats, as well as more severe and frequent health problems that are already affected by the climate and weather. S EQUITY IN CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Mark A. Sincerely, Patty Hayes Indicators of the Public Health Impacts of Climate Change Public Health Issue Indicator Notes on Quality and Accessibility Extreme heat 1. Public health professionals have a responsibility to recognise, warn about, and help society to deal with threats to public health, and climate change is no exception. An integrated approach to assessment is encouraged because the impact of climate is likely to transcend traditional sector and regional boundaries, with Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. upstream drivers leading to climate change or the downstream effects of climate change itself. 'PH . Leading public health organizations, including the American Public Health Association (APHA), the U. Climate sensitive health determinants and outcomes pose a threat to public health in Least Devel-oped Countries (LDC) [4–6]. Is Climate Change Making Us Sick? The Future of Public Health in a Climate Altered World Present a joint symposium on Thursday, Dec. Climate change is recognized as a public health issue and is integrated into public health practice. Under the supervision of: Dr. And climate change is here, affecting the health of all Americans. Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the American people. Climate change already affects human health directly, for example through increased heat stress or loss of life in floods and storms, and upstream drivers leading to climate change or the downstream effects of climate change itself. 3. It is important to take action now to lessen climate change. Patz served as a lead author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for 14 years, and co-chaired the Health Expert Panel of the first U. CAT-PHWG Quarterly Meeting | June 10, 2019 Wildfires, Climate Change, and Public climate change, local communication pathways, uncertainty,infrastructure vulnerability, lack of empowerment, and mitigation through alternative transportation. Within this goal, Objective 2 commits to the completion of a vulnerability and risk assessment of the public health impacts associated with climate change every two years beginning June 30, 2015 (SPRCPH, 2014). This Climate change and expanding urban development in fire- than half a million people to evacuate. • Approach climate change with a health equity lens • Host local convenings on climate change • Engage local universities for climate change support • Create climate change and health messaging that resonates with local communities The LHDs also noted considerable barriers to implementing climate and health programs at the For teaching institutions: make environmental health, climate change and health care’s role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating adaptation part of required learning. Indicators of the Public Health Impacts of Climate Change Public Health Issue Indicator Notes on Quality and Accessibility Extreme heat 1. 168, 169 These include empirical research on the association between climate change and health, scenario development to forecast health impacts and vulnerabilities, and development and testing of strategies to reduce risk. ) Richmond, and Gary W. In addition, climate change may negatively impact economies globally, particularly those of low and middle income countries. Climate change threatens human health, including mental health, and access to clean air, safe drinking water, nutritious food, and shelter. Public health agencies and stakeholder organizations have the tools, resources, and activities to respond to climate change impacts within existing programs. C. Facilitated by: Linda Helland, MPH, CPH . Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. These services also serve as the framework of a seminal research article considering the impacts of climate change on the nation’s public health system (Frumkin et al. She engages in research on how climate change is impacting the healthcare system and Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. Human activity, principally the release of greenhouse gasses (GHG), is the major contributor to climate change. CONCLUSIONS Although health professionals are challenged with risks from climate change and its drivers, the adverse health outcomes cannot be resolved by the public health community alone. Several lines of health research are needed to provide data-based support for public health action on climate change. 1 As a result, we face more heat-related illnesses, air quality issues, food and water contamination, traumatic injuries, threats to our mental health, and infectious diseases. Bloomberg School of Public Health in fielding the survey. Other causes of morbidity and mortality that can be affected by climate change EQUITY IN CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Mark A. Some Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. Effects of climate change on ecosystems, including effects on biodiversity, may alter the risk of a new zoonoses originating from wildlife (21,22). st. This booklet was compiled to provide a better understanding of how climate change can affect the health of Utah’s citizens. National Assessment on Climate Change. Other causes of morbidity and mortality that can be affected by climate change Global Climate Change, Population Displacement, and Public Health is a vital resource for an international audience of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers representing a variety of disciplines, including public health, public policy, social work, urban development, climate and environmental science, engineering, and medicine. The Cadmus Group, Inc. edu. century Climate change together with ecosystem damage and biodiversity loss are by far the greatest public health threats of the century, not just globally, but to the United Kingdom. org MedicalAdvocatesforHealthyAir. 2 These threats will 1. 20460 January 2010 Prepared by: David Mudarri, Ph. Poison/Toxicology. and adapt to the public health impacts of climate change.

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